Analisis Literario Del Poema Castilla De Miguel De Unamuno
As we have seen, Unamuno already suggests many of these attitudes in his correspondence with Stein. But the two brothers now appear more divided than ever and the differences go much further than those trajectos before. Stein has already written about Unamuno’s strict religious nature, but now we find that don Miguel views himself in a similar light.2 Don Miguel maintains that he is an old believer in faith, faithful to the inherited religion he received and to the religious faith he passed on to his family. Stein reminds his brother that this religious material is not knowledge but a set of metaphors, but don Miguel argues that the same thing can be said for the liberal secular world of thought. When he writes in the last years of the diary that he has no faith, the reason is that he has examined the evidence, and all evidence is against the existence of faith. In fact, it is his own conscience which has convinced him of it. So in a sense, it could be argued that he has become a true unbeliever.
His choice of texts also provides insight into the problems in don Miguel’s faith. Many of the texts he writes out are texts in which the conflict between body and soul is evident, and to the extent that Unamuno is writing to Unamuno, he can argue that the knowledge he seeks lies in the conflict. This can be seen in texts like those of the Palinodia, which is composed as a series of questions and answers about the bodily and spiritual nature of the soul. Here he explicitly juxtaposes the soul with the body, writes that the only place we are as the body is in war, and articulates that God is the soul and the person is the soul’s body (49-50). As a result, when he returns to Palinodia at the end of the diary, his readings of it reveal him to be at war within himself.
Unamuno’s polemical use of history expresses the conviction that a la clase histrica no le interesa el argot tragico ni la controversia paralelista, to the historian’s sense of justice it is not his interest to involve himself in the quarrels of intellectual and social groups. Following the description of the Inquisition in 1885, to which Miguel has been a witness, he writes: No hubiere podido esclarecerme a mas de una vida si me hubiera hecho sombra de los antiguos justicios, porque siempre quedaba en la memoria el horrible debate de hechos irrefutables que desde entonces ha postrado en este pais hechos inexcusables. Es otra pasión esta que la otra, porque en realidad llamamos justicia a la punas que, en lugar de separar como debiera la justicia de la herejia, la usan como alica para matar a los partidarios de la parte que la llaman justa, pero no lo son, de ofenderse algo que en su cuestion a cristianidad no puede no ser (1935-15).
Furthermore, by the time of the Cmo se hace una novela, Unamuno is telling us that a writer who, like himself, is both a nonman and a nonfalldid, will always tend to favor allegory over historical fiction because a writer like don Miguel who writes only for himself needs a self-sufficient fiction, like the Quixote, in which he can move at the limit of his imaginative powers, that is, beyond his own limits. If he takes this action, however, he will likely be able to stay at this limit only so long as he remains faithful to the experience of existence, not to its perceptions or representations, and therefore his encounter with the sublime will be always a ghostly one, as if he were lingering over the grave of the last actual author, to whom he is regularly compared.